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|SAN FRANCISCO， March 12 (Xinhua) -- Marine biologists at Stanford University have discovered that corals activate a specific group of ancient， defensive genes when exposed to stressful environmental conditions.
By monitoring three coral colonies in a lagoon on Ofu Island， American Samoa， for their response to stressors like high temperatures， oxygen， and ocean acidity， the researchers saw a significant change in which genes the corals were activating within their cells.
These stress-induced genes could serve as a kind of warning sign for coral bleaching events.
Under stressful conditions， a coral's normal cellular functions begin to fail. In response， the group of genes identified in this study triggers a process， called the unfolded protein response， that works to restore normal conditions within the cell. If conditions continue to worsen， the corals bleach and eventually die.
Over the course of the seventeen-day study， Steve Palumbi， a professor of marine sciences and an author of a paper published in the latest issue of Science Advances， together with graduate student Lupita Ruiz-Jones， monitored over 17，000 coral genes at just after noon each day.
On the seventh and eighth day， when tides were lowest and temperatures hottest， the corals' genes initiated the cellular unfolded protein response. On day nine， the tides rose and the corals' systems returned to normal.
"For the first time， we are able to ask those corals， 'how are you doing?' They don't have a heartbeat. They don't have a pulse. We need to know their vital signs in order to understand how they react to the environment，" Palumbi was quoted as saying in a news release from Stanford.
The lagoon on Ofu Island， a shallow turquoise bathtub， provided the ideal coral laboratory for studying heat-tolerant corals. The corals on Ofu experience water temperatures near human body temperature， enough to kill most coral species. However， they prosper in stressful environmental conditions.
Scientists believe that frequent， pulsing exposure to high temperatures may make corals stronger， much in the same way athletes train for competition. Understanding why some of the world's toughest corals are so heat-tolerant could help scientists identify and map other survivor coral colonies around the globe.
The stress response has been observed in mammals as well as some yeast species. Humans activate the same ancient genes in response to diseases， like cancer.
In times of stress， a cell's misfolded and unfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum， a series of flattened， tube-like structures in the cell that assist with building proteins. The unfolded protein response is a reaction to the flood of misassembled proteins.
"It's basically the organism recognizing that something isn't right，" Ruiz-Jones said.
In the corals' case， Palumbi said， "they started using a whole set of genes that they had just not been using before."
CANBERRA Nike Air VaporMax Black UK , March 22 (Xinhua) -- Taking fish oil supplements while pregnant will not result in smarter children, according to the results of a decade-long study by Australian researchers.
Researchers from the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) discovered that routinely taking DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) supplements - an omega-3 fatty acid found in fish oils - while pregnant does not affect the future 'brightness' of the child, despite some supplement companies claiming it will.
The team from SAHMRI followed more than 460 children from pregnancy until they were 10 years old Nike Air VaporMax Womens UK , and found a negligible difference in the IQ of those whose mothers took fish oil supplements compared to those who didn't.
According to the research, the average IQ of children born after exposure to fish oils was 98.31 compared to 97.32 for the "control group."
Jacqueline Gould from SAHMRI told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) there were no significant differences in language, academic abilities Nike Air VaporMax UK , or executive functioning as a result of fish oil exposure.
"Overall we found that there's been no benefit ... so the babies in this study don't seem to have any benefit to their brain development from their mothers taking fish oil," Gould said on Wednesday.
"Mainly we looked at their intelligence. So at 18 months we did some assessments with them, and again when they reached four years and just now when they turned seven."
She said the study was undertaken in response to claims from some manufacturers that taking the supplements would lead to happier Nike Air Max 270 UK , healthier and smarter babies.
"Back when we first started this study some of the supplement manufacturers were specifically marketing their supplements as being beneficial for babies' brain development," she said.
Gould added that while there was no tangible difference in the IQ of kids exposed to fish oil's benefits, it did result in more full-term pregnancies.
"The length of pregnancy increased just a little bit in the fish oil group Nike Air Max 98 UK , and that actually meant there were slightly fewer babies born very pre-term," Gould told the ABC.
"We still have to do more work to find out whether or not this is a true effect of the fish oil, but that would be quite a significant benefit if it is."
NANJING Nike Air Max 2018 UK , China, Aug. 23 (Xinhua) -- For Bud Kling, the Olympic Games has been an important part of his life for years and he's in Nanjing to attend his 16th Olympic Games.
Kling has attended 13 Olympic Games and Nanjing 2014 is his third Youth Olympic Games. His first Olympic experience was in 1984 Nike Air Max 97 Ultra 17 UK , when his hometown of Los Angeles hosted the summer Games.
"My first personal experience was in Los Angeles where I was a volunteer working with the TV media at the basketball venue," he said, "I was pretty much determined to make every Games from then on Nike Air Max 97 Off White UK , as long as I possibly could."
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